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The soprano saxophone is a variety of the saxophone, a woodwind instrument, invented in 1840. The soprano is the third smallest member of the saxophone family, which consists (from smallest to largest) of the soprillo, sopranino, soprano, alto, tenor, baritone, bass, contrabass and tubax.
A transposing instrument pitched in the key of B♭, modern soprano saxophones with a high F# key have a range from A♭3 to E6 and are therefore pitched one octave above the tenor saxophone. Some saxophones have additional keys, allowing them to play an additional F♯ and G at the top of the range. These extra keys are commonly found on more modern saxophones. Additionally, skilled players can make use of the Altissimo register, which allows them to play even higher. There is also a soprano pitched in C, which is less common and has not been made since around 1940.
The soprano saxophone can be compared to the B♭clarinet. Although the clarinet can play a diminshed fifth lower and over a fifth higher, the sax generally has a louder and more penetrating sound in the extreme high notes.Template:Vague Due to the smaller bore of the soprano, it is less forgiving with respect to intonation, though an experienced player will use alternate fingerings or vary breath support, tongue position, or embouchure to compensate. Professional players will use the technique of voicing to fix problems with intonation. Due to its similarity in tone to the oboe, the soprano saxophone is sometimes used as a substitute for it.
Soprano saxophones are usually straight, but sometimes have slightly or fully curved necks and bells. The fully curved variety looks much like a small alto saxophone with a straighter crook. There is some debate over the effect of the straight and curved neck, with some players believing that a curved neck on a soprano gives it a warmer, less nasal tone. The soprano has all of the keys on other saxophone models (with the exception of the extra 'A' on some baritones) and some (e.g. those made by Yanagisawa and Bauhaus Walstein) may have a top 'G' key next to the F-sharp key. Soprano saxophone mouthpieces are available in various different designs, allowing players to tailor their tone as required.
Musicians especially known for playing the soprano saxophone include jazz artists John Coltrane (most notably on the landmark album My Favorite Things), Walter Parazaider, Sidney Bechet, Bob Berg, Wayne Shorter, Joe Farrell, Steve Lacy, Lucky Thompson, Sonny Fortune, Anthony Braxton, Gary Bartz, Bennie Maupin, Branford Marsalis, Jan Garbarek, Paul Winter, Dave Liebman, Evan Parker, Sam Newsome; smooth jazz saxophonists Kenny G, Jay Beckenstein, Dave Koz, and Grover Washington, Jr.; and Nigerian Afrobeat singer, Fela Kuti.
In classical music Edit
cs:Sopránsaxofon de:Sopransaxophon es:Saxofón soprano fr:Saxophone soprano fy:Sopraansaksofoan it:Sassofono soprano nl:Sopraansaxofoon no:Sopransaksofon pl:Saksofon sopranowy pt:Saxofone soprano sl:Sopranski saksofon sr:Сопран саксофон