Lester William Polsfuss (June 9, 1915 – August 13, 2009)—known as Les Paul—was an American jazz, country and blues guitarist, songwriter, luthier and inventor. He was one of the pioneers of the solid-body electric guitar, which made the sound of rock and roll possible. He is credited with many recording innovations. Although he was not the first to use the technique, his early experiments with overdubbing (also known as sound on sound), delay effects such as tape delay, phasing effects and multitrack recording were among the first to attract widespread attention.
His innovative talents extended into his playing style, including licks, trills, chording sequences, fretting techniques and timing, which set him apart from his contemporaries and inspired many guitarists of the present day. He recorded with his wife Mary Ford in the 1950s, and they sold millions of records.
Among his many honors, Paul is one of a handful of artists with a permanent, stand-alone exhibit in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. He is prominently named by the music museum on its website as an "architect" and a "key inductee" along with Sam Phillips and Alan Freed.
Les Paul was born Lester William Polsfuss outside Milwaukee, in Waukesha, Wisconsin, to George and Evelyn (1888–1989) (née Stutz) Polsfuss. His family was of German ancestry. Paul's mother was related to the founders of Milwaukee's Valentin Blatz Brewing Company and the makers of the Stutz automobile. His parents divorced when he was a child. The Prussian family name was first simplified by his mother to Polfuss before he took his stage name of Les Paul. He also used the nicknames Red Hot Red and Rhubarb Red.
While living in Wisconsin, he first became interested in music at age eight when he began playing the harmonica. After an attempt at learning the banjo, he began to play the guitar. It was during this time that he invented a neck-worn harmonica holder, which allowed him to play the harmonica hands-free while accompanying himself on the guitar. Paul's device is still manufactured using his basic design. By age thirteen, Paul was performing semi-professionally as a country-music singer, guitarist and harmonica player. While playing at the Waukesha area drive-ins and roadhouses, Paul began his first experiment with sound. Wanting to make himself heard by more people at the local venues, he wired a phonograph needle to a radio speaker, using that to amplify his acoustic guitar. At age seventeen, Paul played with Rube Tronson's Texas Cowboys, and soon after he dropped out of high school to join Wolverton's Radio Band in St. Louis, Missouri, on KMOX.
Paul moved to Chicago in 1934, where he continued to perform on radio, and met pianist Art Tatum, whose playing influenced him to a career devoted to guitar rather than original plans of taking on the piano. His first two records were released in 1936. One was credited to "Rhubarb Red", Paul's hillbilly alter ego, and the other was as an accompanist for blues-artist Georgia White. It was during this time that he began playing jazz and adopted his stage name.
Paul's jazz-guitar style was strongly influenced by the music of Django Reinhardt, whom he greatly admired. Following World War II, Paul sought out and befriended Reinhardt. After Reinhardt's death in 1953, Paul furnished his headstone. One of Paul's prize possessions was a Selmer Maccaferri acoustic guitar given to him by Reinhardt's widow. Template:Externalvideo
Paul formed a trio in 1937 with singer/rhythm guitarist Jim Atkins (older half-brother of guitarist Chet Atkins) and bassist/percussionist Ernie "Darius" Newton. They left Chicago for New York in 1939, landing a featured spot with Fred Waring's Pennsylvanians radio show. Chet Atkins later wrote that his brother, home on a family visit, presented the younger Atkins with an expensive Gibson archtop guitar that had been given to Jim Atkins by Les Paul. Chet recalled that it was the first professional-quality instrument he ever owned.
Paul was dissatisfied with acoustic-electric guitars and began experimenting at his apartment in Queens, NY with a few designs of his own. Famously, he created several versions of "The Log", which was nothing more than a length of common 4x4 lumber with a bridge, guitar neck and pickup attached. For the sake of appearance, he attached the body of an Epiphone hollow-body guitar, sawn lengthwise with The Log in the middle. This solved his two main problems: feedback, as the acoustic body no longer resonated with the amplified sound, and sustain, as the energy of the strings was not dissipated in generating sound through the guitar body. These instruments were constantly being improved and modified over the years, and Paul continued to use them in his recordings long after the development of his eponymous Gibson model. In 1945, Richard D. Bourgerie made an electric guitar pickup and amplifier for professional guitar player George Barnes. Bourgerie worked through World War II at Howard Radio Company making electronic equipment for the American military. Barnes showed the result to Les Paul, who then arranged for Bourgerie to have one made for him.
While experimenting in his apartment in 1940, Paul nearly succumbed to electrocution. During two years of recuperation, he relocated to Hollywood, supporting himself by producing radio music and forming a new trio. He was drafted into the US Army shortly after the beginning of World War II, where he served in the Armed Forces Network, backing such artists as Bing Crosby, the Andrews Sisters, and performing in his own right.
As a last-minute replacement for Oscar Moore, Paul played with Nat King Cole and other artists in the inaugural Jazz at the Philharmonic concert in Los Angeles, California, on July 2, 1944. The recording, still available as Jazz at the Philharmonic- the first concert- shows Paul at the top of his game, both in his solid four to the bar comping in the style of Freddie Green and for the originality of his solo lines. Paul's solo on 'Blues' is an astonishing tour de force and represents a memorable contest between himself and Nat 'King' Cole. Much later in his career, Paul declared that he had been the victor and that this had been conceded by Cole. His solo on Body and Soul is a fine demonstration both of his admiration for and emulation of the playing of Django Reinhardt, as well as his development of some very original lines.
Also that year, Paul's trio appeared on Bing Crosby's radio show. Crosby went on to sponsor Paul's recording experiments. The two also recorded together several times, including a 1945 number-one hit, "It's Been a Long, Long Time." In addition to backing Crosby, The Andrews Sisters and other artists, Paul's trio also recorded a few albums of their own on the Decca label in the late 1940s. Paul was particularly enamored by the famous Andrews Sisters, who hired The Les Paul Trio as their opening act while they toured in 1946. Lou Levy, the sisters' manager and a music publishing giant of the big band era and beyond, once said, "Watching his fingers work was like watching a locomotive go." The trio's longtime conductor, Vic Schoen, said of Les, "You could always count on him to come up with something no one else had thought of," while Maxene Andrews once remembered, "It was wonderful having him perform with us. He'd tune into the passages we were singing and lightly play the melody, sometimes in harmony. We'd sing these fancy licks and he'd keep up with us note for note in exactly the same rhythm...almost contributing a fourth voice. But he never once took the attention away from what we were doing. He did everything he could to make us sound better." Two Decca recordings from 1946 pairing Paul with The Andrews Sisters ("Rumors Are Flying" and "It's a Pity to Say Goodnight") exist today to well affirm such comments. Paul's many hits with wife Mary Ford recording her vocals in triplicate in the 1950s produced a sound eerily similar to the harmonious blend of The Andrews Sisters. As Les Paul biographer Mary Alice Shaughnessy noted of Paul's association with The Andrews Sisters, "Les welcomed the opportunity to study them in full flight."
In January 1948, Paul shattered his right arm and elbow in a near-fatal automobile accident on an icy Route 66 just west of Davenport, Oklahoma. Mary Ford was driving the Buick convertible, which rolled several times down a creek bed; they were on their way back from Wisconsin to Los Angeles after performing at the opening of a restaurant owned by Paul's father. Doctors at Oklahoma City's Wesley Presbyterian Hospital told him that they could not rebuild his elbow so that he would regain movement; his arm would remain permanently in whatever position they placed it in. Their other option was amputation. Paul instructed surgeons, brought in from Los Angeles, to set his arm at an angle—just under 90 degrees—that would allow him to cradle and pick the guitar. It took him nearly a year and a half to recover.
Paul's innovative guitar, "The Log", built after-hours in the Epiphone guitar factory in 1940, a 4" × 4" chunk of pine with strings and a pickup, was one of the first solid-body electric guitars. Paul Tutmarc of Audiovox Manufacturing Co. built a solid body electric bass in 1935 and Adolph Rickenbacker had marketed a solid-body guitar in the 1930s and Paul A. Bigsby had built one for Merle Travis in 1948 and Leo Fender also independently created his own (the Fender "Esquire," a single pickup model) in 1948. Although Paul approached the Gibson Guitar Corporation with his idea of a solid body electric guitar, they showed no interest until Fender began marketing its Esquire which later had a second pick-up added and became known as the Broadcaster (Renamed Telecaster in 1952).
The arrangement persisted until 1961, when declining sales prompted Gibson to change the design without Paul's knowledge, creating a much thinner, lighter and more aggressive-looking instrument with two cutaway "horns" instead of one. Paul said he first saw the "new" Gibson Les Paul in a music-store window, and disliked it. Although his contract required him to pose with the guitar, he said it was not "his" instrument and asked Gibson to remove his name from the headstock. Others claimed that Paul ended his endorsement contract with Gibson during his divorce to avoid having his wife get his endorsement money. At Paul's request, Gibson renamed the guitar "Gibson SG", which stands for "Solid Guitar", and it also became one of the company's best sellers.
The original Gibson Les Paul-guitar design regained popularity when Eric Clapton began playing the instrument a few years later, although he also played an SG and an ES-335. Paul resumed his relationship with Gibson and endorsed the original Gibson Les Paul guitar from that point onwards. His personal Gibson Les Pauls were much modified by him—Paul always used his own self-wound pickups and customized methods of switching between pickups on his guitars. To this day, various models of Gibson Les Paul guitars are used all over the world by both novice and professional guitarists. A less-expensive version of the Gibson Les Paul guitar is also manufactured for Gibson's lower-priced Epiphone brand.
Paul had never been happy with the way his records sounded. During a post-recording session talk with Bing Crosby, the crooner suggested Paul try building his own recording studio so he might be able to get the sound he wanted. At first Paul discounted the idea only to give it a few more minutes thought before deciding Crosby was right. Paul started his own studio in the garage of his home on Hollywood's North Curson Street. The studio drew many other famous vocalists and musicians who wanted the benefit of Paul's expertise. The home and studio are still standing, but both had been moved to Pasadena at some point after Paul no longer owned the home.
In 1948, Les Paul was given one of the first Ampex Model 200A reel-to-reel audio tape recording decks by Crosby and went on to use Ampex's eight track "Sel-Sync" machines for Multitrack recording. Capitol Records released a recording that had begun as an experiment in Paul's garage, entitled "Lover (When You're Near Me)", which featured Paul playing eight different parts on electric guitar, some of them recorded at half-speed, hence "double-fast" when played back at normal speed for the master. ("Brazil", similarly recorded, was the B-side.) This was the first time that Les Paul used multitracking in a recording (Paul had been shopping his multitracking technique, unsuccessfully, since the '30s. Much to his dismay, Sidney Bechet used it in 1941 to play half a dozen instruments on "Sheik of Araby"). These recordings were made not with magnetic tape, but with acetate discs. Paul would record a track onto a disk, then record himself playing another part with the first. He built the multitrack recording with overlaid tracks, rather than parallel ones as he did later. By the time he had a result he was satisfied with, he had discarded some five hundred recording disks.
Paul even built his own disc-cutter assembly, based on automobile parts. He favored the flywheel from a Cadillac for its weight and flatness. Even in these early days, he used the acetate-disk setup to record parts at different speeds and with delay, resulting in his signature sound with echoes and birdsong-like guitar riffs. When he later began using magnetic tape, the major change was that he could take his recording rig on tour with him, even making episodes for his fifteen-minute radio show in his hotel room. He later worked with Ross Snyder in the design of the first eight-track recording deck (built for him by Ampex for his home studio.)
Electronics engineer Jack Mullin had been assigned to a U.S. Army Signal Corps unit stationed in France during World War II. On a mission in Germany near the end of the war, he acquired and later shipped home a German Magnetophon (tape recorder) and fifty reels of I.G. Farben plastic recording tape. Back in the U.S., Mullin rebuilt and developed the machine with the intention of selling it to the film industry, and held a series of demonstrations which quickly became the talk of the American audio industry.
Within a short time, Crosby had hired Mullin to record and produce his radio shows and master his studio recordings on tape. Crosby invested US$50,000 in a Northern California electronics firm, Ampex. With Crosby's backing, Mullin and Ampex created the Ampex Model 200, the world's first commercially produced reel-to-reel audio tape recorder. Crosby gave Les Paul the second Model 200 to be produced.
Les Paul invented Sound on Sound recording using this machine by placing an additional playback head, located before the conventional erase/record/playback heads. This allowed Paul to play along with a previously recorded track, both of which were mixed together on to a new track. This was a mono tape recorder with just one track across the entire width of quarter-inch tape; thus, the recording was "destructive" in the sense that the original recording was permanently replaced with the new, mixed recording. He eventually enhanced this by using one tape machine to play back the original recording and a second to record the combined track. This preserved the original recording
Les Paul bought the first Ampex 8-track recorder in 1957. Rein Narma built a custom 8-channel mixing console for Les Paul. The mixing board included in-line equalization and vibrato effects The recorder was named "the octopus" and the mixing console was named "the monster". The name octopus was inspired by W. C. Fields who was the first person Les Paul played a multi-track recording to. Upon hearing the recording W. C. Fields said: 'My boy, you sound like an octopus."
Les Paul & Mary FordEdit
Paul met country-western singer Colleen Summers in 1945. They began working together in 1948, at which time she adopted the stage name Mary Ford. They were married in 1949. The couple's hits included "How High the Moon", "Bye Bye Blues", "Song in Blue", "Don'cha Hear Them Bells", "The World Is Waiting for the Sunrise", and "Vaya con Dios". These songs featured Ford harmonizing with herself.
Like Crosby, Paul and Ford used the now-ubiquitous recording technique known as close miking, where the microphone is less than Template:Convert from the singer's mouth. This produces a more-intimate, less-reverberant sound than is heard when a singer is Template:Convert or more from the microphone. When implemented using a cardioid-patterned microphone, it emphasizes low-frequency sounds in the voice due to a cardioid microphone's proximity effect and can give a more relaxed feel because the performer isn't working so hard. The result is a singing style which diverged strongly from unamplified theater-style singing, as might be heard in musical comedies of the 1930s and 1940s.
Radio and television programsEdit
Paul had hosted a fifteen-minute radio program, The Les Paul Show, on NBC radio in 1950, featuring his trio (himself, Ford and rhythm player Eddie Stapleton) and his electronics, recorded from their home and with gentle humor between Paul and Ford bridging musical selections, some of which had already been successful on records, some of which anticipated the couple's recordings, and many of which presented re-interpretations of such jazz and pop selections as "In the Mood", "Little Rock Getaway", "Brazil" and "Tiger Rag". Over ten of these shows survive among old-time radio collectors today.
The show also appeared on television a few years later with the same format, but excluding the trio and retitled The Les Paul & Mary Ford Show (also known as Les Paul & Mary Ford at Home) with "Vaya Con Dios" as a theme song. Sponsored by Warner Lambert's Listerine mouthwash, it was widely syndicated during 1954–1955, and was only five minutes (one or two songs) long on film, therefore used as a brief interlude or fill-in in programming schedules. Since Paul created the entire show himself, including audio and video, he maintained the original recordings and was in the process of restoring them to current quality standards until his death.
During his radio shows, Paul introduced the fictional "Les Paulverizer" device, which multiplies anything fed into it, like a guitar sound or a voice. Paul has stated that the idea was to explain to the audience how his single guitar could be multiplied to become a group of guitars. The device even became the subject of comedy, with Ford multiplying herself and her vacuum cleaner with it so she could finish the housework faster.
In 1965, Paul went into semi-retirement, although he did return to the studio occasionally. He and Ford had divorced in December 1962, as she could no longer cope with the traveling lifestyle their act required of them. Paul's most-recognizable recordings from then through the mid-1970s were an album for London Records/Phase 4 Stereo, Les Paul Now (1968), on which he updated some of his earlier hits; and, backed by some of Nashville's celebrated studio musicians, a meld of jazz and country improvisation with fellow guitar virtuoso Chet Atkins, Chester and Lester (1976), for RCA Victor.
In 1987, Paul underwent heart surgery. He then returned to active live performance, continuing into his 80s even though he often found it painful to play the guitar because of arthritis in his hands. In 2006, at age 90, he won two Grammys at the 48th Annual Grammy Awards for his album Les Paul & Friends: American Made World Played. He also performed every Monday night, accompanied by a trio which included guitarist Lou Pallo, bassist Paul Nowinksi (and later, Nicki Parrott) and pianist John Colaianni, originally at Fat Tuesdays, and later at the Iridium Jazz Club on Broadway in the Times Square area of New York City.
Les and his trio held court at the Iridium Jazz Club in midtown Manhattan for many years, playing every Monday night. Often, a wide array of other artists would appear and sit in with or sing in front of the trio. A tribute trio still plays the Monday dates.
Composer Richard Stein (1909–1992) sued Paul for plagiarism, charging that Paul's "Johnny (Is the Boy for Me)" was taken from Stein's 1937 song "Sanie cu zurgălăi" (Romanian for "Sleigh with Bells"). A 2000 cover version of "Johnny" by Belgian musical group Vaya Con Dios that credited Paul prompted another action by the Romanian Musical Performing and Mechanical Rights Society.
For many years Les Paul would sometimes surprise radio hosts Steve King and Johnnie Putman with a call to the "Life After Dark Show" on WGN (AM) in Chicago. These calls would take place in the wee hours of Tuesday Morning following his long-running Monday evening show at the Iridium Jazz Club in Manhattan. Until they ended their show on WGN, Steve and Johnnie continued to honor Les on Tuesday Mornings at 2:35 AM with their segment "A Little More Les" drawing from around 30 hours of recorded conversations with Les.
On August 13, 2009, Paul died of complications from pneumonia at White Plains Hospital in White Plains, New York. His family and friends were by his side. Paul is survived by his four children and his companion Arlene Palmer. His attorney told the media that he had made several hospital stays over the previous few months. His last concert took place a few weeks before his death.
Upon learning of his death many artists and popular musicians paid tribute by publicly expressing their sorrow. After learning of Paul's death, former Guns N' Roses guitarist Slash called him "vibrant and full of positive energy.", while Richie Sambora, lead guitarist of Bon Jovi, referred to him as "revolutionary in the music business". U2 guitarist The Edge said, "His legacy as a musician and inventor will live on and his influence on rock and roll will never be forgotten." 
On August 21, 2009, he was buried near Milwaukee in Waukesha, Wisconsin at Prairie Home Cemetery which indicated that his plot would be in an area where visitors can easily view it. Like his funeral in New York on August 19, the burial was private, but earlier in the day a public memorial viewing of the closed casket was held in Milwaukee at Discovery World with 1,500 attendees who were offered free admission to the Les Paul House of Sound exhibit for the day.
Awards and honorsEdit
Paul was initiated into the Gamma Delta chapter of the Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity at the University of Miami in 1952. He has earned the Presidential award from the Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity.
Les Paul has been acknowledged by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences (aka The Recording Academy and NARAS) with various Grammy Awards. In 1979, Paul and Ford's 1951 recording of "How High the Moon" was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. Paul received a Grammy Trustees Award for his lifetime achievements in 1983, and in 2001 Paul was honored with the Special Merit/Technical Grammy Award, which recognizes "individuals or institutions that have set the highest standards of excellence in the creative application of audio technology," a select award given to masters of audio innovation including Thomas Alva Edison, Leo Fender, and Beatles recording engineer Geoff Emerick. 
In 1988, Paul was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame by Jeff Beck, who said, "I've copied more licks from Les Paul than I'd like to admit." In 1991, the Mix Foundation established an annual award in his name; the Les Paul Award which honors "individuals or institutions that have set the highest standards of excellence in the creative application of audio technology". In 2005, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his development of the solid-body electric guitar. In 2006, Paul was inducted into the National Association of Broadcasters Hall of Fame. He was named an honorary member of the Audio Engineering Society. In 2007, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts.
A one-hour biographical documentary film The Wizard of Waukesha was shown at the Los Angeles International Film Exposition (FILMEX) March 4–21, 1980, and later on PBS television. A biographical, feature-length documentary titled Chasing Sound: Les Paul at 90 made its world première on May 9, 2007, at the Downer Theater in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Paul appeared at the event and spoke briefly to the enthusiastic crowd. The film is distributed by Koch Entertainment and was broadcast on PBS on July 11, 2007, as part of its American Masters series and was broadcast on October 17, 2008, on BBC Four as part of its Guitar Night. The première coincided with the final part of a three-part documentary by the BBC broadcast on BBC One The Story of the Guitar.
In June 2008, an exhibit showcasing his legacy and featuring items from his personal collection opened at Discovery World in Milwaukee. The exhibit was facilitated by a group of local musicians under the name Partnership for the Arts and Creative Excellence (PACE). Paul played a concert in Milwaukee to coincide with the opening of the exhibit.
Paul's hometown of Waukesha is planning a permanent exhibit to be called "The Les Paul experience."
In July 2005, a 90th-birthday tribute concert was held at Carnegie Hall in New York City. After performances by Steve Miller, Peter Frampton, Jose Feliciano and a number of other contemporary guitarists and vocalists, Paul was presented with a commemorative guitar from the Gibson Guitar Corporation.
On November 15, 2008, he received the American Music Masters award through the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at a tribute concert at the State Theater in Cleveland, Ohio. Among the many guest performers were Duane Eddy, Eric Carmen, Lonnie Mack, Jennifer Batten, Jeff "Skunk" Baxter, Dennis Coffey, James Burton, Billy Gibbons, Lenny Kaye, Steve Lukather, Barbara Lynn, Katy Moffatt, Alannah Myles, Richie Sambora, The Ventures and Slash.
In February 2009, only months prior to his death, Les Paul sat down with Scott Vollweiler of Broken Records Magazine, in which would be one of Les Paul's final interviews. His candid answers were direct and emotional. Broken Records Magazine had planned to run that cover feature the following month but due to delays was held until the summer. 3 days before the release, Les Paul died. The issue would be his final cover feature of his storied career.
In April 2009, Gerbren Deves did an extensive interview with him, which was published in the English Guitar Magazine just after his death.
In August, 2009, Paul was named one of the ten best electric guitar players of all-time by Time magazine.
On June 9, 2010, which would have been Les Paul's 95th birthday, a tribute concert featuring Jeff Beck, Imelda May, Gary U.S. Bonds and Brian Setzer among others, was held at the Iridium Jazz Club where Les Paul played nearly every week almost to the end of his life. The concert was released on the live album Rock 'n' Roll Party (Honoring Les Paul) in 2011.
Paul married Virginia Webb in 1938. They had two children, Gene (Lester Jr.), born in 1941 and named after actor-songwriter Gene Lockhart, and Russell (Rusty), born 1944, before divorcing in 1949. Later that year, Paul and Mary Ford (born Iris Colleen Summers) were married. They adopted a girl, Colleen, in 1958 and their son Robert (Bobby) was born the following year. They had also lost a child, who was born prematurely and died only four days old. Les Paul and Mary Ford divorced in 1963.
Paul resided for many years in Mahwah, New Jersey.
|1945||"It's Been a Long, Long Time"(with Bing Crosby)||1|
|1946||"Rumors Are Flying"(with Andrews Sisters)||4|
|"What Is This Thing Called Love?"||11|
|"Little Rock Getaway"||18|
|1951||"Jazz Me Blues"||23|
|"Mockin' Bird Hill"(gold record)||2||7|
|"How High the Moon"(gold record)||1||2|
|"I Wish I Had Never Seen Sunshine"||18|
|"The World Is Waiting for the Sunrise"(gold record)||2|
|"Just One More Chance"||5|
|"In the Good Old Summertime"||15|
|"Meet Mr. Callahan"||5|
|"Take Me In Your Arms and Hold Me"||15|
|"Lady of Spain"||8|
|"My Baby's Comin' Home"||7|
|1953||"Bye Bye Blues"||5|
|"I'm Sittin' On Top of the World"||10|
|"Vaya Con Dios"(gold record)||1||7|
|"Don'cha Hear Them Bells"||13|
|1954||"I Really Don't Want To Know"||11|
|"I'm a Fool To Care"||6|
|"Wither Thou Goest"||10|
|1958||"Put a Ring On My Finger"||32|
|"It's Been a Long Long Time"||105|
Paul was also a prolific composer. Some of the songs he wrote were "Song in Blue", "Cryin'", "Hip-billy Boogie", "Suspicion", "Mandolino", "Magic Melody", "Don'cha Hear Them Bells", "The Kangaroo", "Big-Eyed Gal", "All I Need is You", "Mammy's Boogie", “Pacific Breeze”, “Mountain Railroad”, “Move Along, Baby (Don’t Waste My Time)”, "Five Alarm Fire", and "Walkin' and Whistlin' Blues".
- Discovery World
- Gibson Les Paul
- Gibson SG
- List of Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inductees
- Mary Ford
- ↑ "Guitar legend Les Paul dies at 94 - Entertainment - Music - TODAY.com". Today.msnbc.msn.com. 2009-08-13. http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/32403755/ns/today-entertainment/t/guitar-legend-les-paul-dies/#.Tx9MCG_OXQg. Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 "the site of LES PAUL – The Wizard of Waukesha". Lespaulonline.com. http://www.lespaulonline.com/indexo.html. Retrieved March 27, 2011. [dead link]
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 "In Pictures: 'Les Paul Memorial Service'". Monsters and Critics. August 21, 2009. http://www.monstersandcritics.com/people/features/article_1496730.php/In-Pictures-Les-Paul-Memorial-Service?page=4. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- ↑ Voices from the Smithsonian Associates. Les Paul, Musician and Inventor. Archived at www.archive.org.
- ↑ Guitarist and recording pioneer Les Paul dies, aged 94. The List. August 12, 2009.
- ↑ "The Wizard Of Waukesha". Pbs.org. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/episodes/les-paul/chasing-sound/100/.
- ↑ Houston, Frank (July 8, 1999). "Father of invention". Salon.com. http://archive.salon.com/people/feature/1999/07/08/paul/print.html. Retrieved August 14, 2009.
- ↑ Staff writer (October 12, 2005). "Les Paul, 90, Releases Tribute Album"[dead link]. CBC. Accessed August 24, 2009.
- ↑ Swing Licks for C6th Lap Steel. The Steel Guitar Forum.
- ↑ Benson, John (November 12, 2008). Rock hall to honor Les Paul. Vindy.com.
- ↑ "Exhibits | The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum". Rockhall.com. http://rockhall.com/exhibits. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- ↑ "The Architects of Rock and Roll featuring Les Paul, Alan Freed and Sam Phillips | The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum". Rockhall.com. http://rockhall.com/exhibits/the-architects/. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
- ↑ "Book Excerpt: The Early Years of the Les Paul Legacy 1915–1963". Gibson.com. http://www.gibson.com/en-us/Lifestyle/Features/the-les-paul-legacy/. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- ↑ Masino, Susan; Paul, Les (2003). Famous Wisconsin Musicians. Oregon, Wisconsin: Badger Books. pp. 9–11. ISBN 1-878569-88-0.
- ↑ Henry, David (August 12, 2009). "Les Paul, Pioneer of Electric Guitar, Inventor, Dies at 94". Bloomberg. Accessed August 24, 2009.
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 American Masters (2007 Season)—"Les Paul: Chasing Sound"—thirteen WNET New York
- ↑ "Articles". Classic Jazz Guitar. http://classicjazzguitar.com/articles/article.jsp?article=25. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- ↑ (August 14, 2009).  The New York Times (website registration required).
- ↑ Ladd, Patty (22 October 2009). "Cinemax to honor 'Edison' of music". The Vindicator. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=CfNYAAAAIBAJ&sjid=doUMAAAAIBAJ&pg=1140,3217614&dq=grammy+hall+of+fame+jo+stafford&hl=en. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
- ↑ "ClassicJazzGuitar.com". ClassicJazzGuitar.com. http://www.classicjazzguitar.com/articles/article.jsp?article=25. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
- ↑ Kaufman, Gil. "Paul Les". MTV News. http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1618673/20090813/paul_les.jhtml.
- ↑ liner notes from Chet Atkins/Jim Atkins 1963 RCA Camden LP #CAL-753, "The Guitar Genius"
- ↑ Atkins, Chet; Neely, Bill (1974). Country Gentleman. Chicago: H. Regnery. ISBN 978-0-8092-9051-2
- ↑ Tianen, Dave (2009-08-26). "The Wizard of Waukesha". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/episodes/les-paul/chasing-sound/100/.
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 Sforza, John: "Swing It! The Andrews Sisters Story;" University Press of Kentucky, 2000; 289 pages.
- ↑ Fresh Air from WHYY. "Guitar Hero: Les Paul, 1915–2009". Npr.org. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=111888401. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- ↑ "The Log". DK Images. http://www.dkimages.com/discover/Home/Performing-Arts/Music/Instruments/String/Guitars/Electric-Guitar/Les-Paul/Les-Paul-01.html. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- ↑ "Epiphone: A History". Epiphone.com. http://www.epiphone.com/History.aspx. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
- ↑ "Interview | July 19, 1999, at the Iridium jazz club, New York City". Jinx Magazine. July 19, 1999. http://www.jinxmagazine.com/les_paul.html. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- ↑ "Epiphone Les Paul Standard". Epiphone.com. http://www.epiphone.com/Products/Les-Paul/Les-Paul-Standard.aspx. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
- ↑ "Patents". Google. http://www.google.com/patents/about?id=Ce9TAAAAEBAJ&dq=3,018,680. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- ↑ 32.0 32.1 32.2 Lawrence, Robb, ed (2008). The Early Years of the Les Paul Legacy: 1915–1963. Hal Leonard Corporation. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-0-634-04861-6. http://books.google.com/?id=NqIgLrXaA6QC&pg=PA19&lpg=PA19&dq=les+paul+recorded+andrews+sisters#v=onepage&q=les%20paul%20recorded%20andrews%20sisters&f=false. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- ↑ "Sel-sync and the "Ocotpus": How Came to be the First Recorder to Minimize Successive Copying in Overdubs" (PDF). ARSC Journal. http://www.aes.org/aeshc/docs/sel-sync/snyder_sel-sync.pdf. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- ↑ 34.0 34.1 "Sel-sync and the "Octopus": How Came to be the First Recorder to Minimize Successive Copying in Overdubs" (PDF). ARSC Journal. http://www.aes.org/aeshc/docs/sel-sync/snyder_sel-sync.pdf. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- ↑ http://www.mixonline.com/ms/aes2007/2007aes-web-report/ Where Audio Comes Alive
- ↑ http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/jan07/articles/classictracks_0107.htm CLASSIC TRACKS: Les Paul & Mary Ford 'How High The Moon'
- ↑ http://www.puremusic.com/61les.html THE BEST OF THE CAPITOL MASTERS
- ↑ "The Les Paul Show". Archive.org. http://www.archive.org/details/TheLesPaulShow. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- ↑ Cellini, Joe (undated). "Les Paul: Invented Here". Apple Inc.. http://www.apple.com/pro/profiles/lespaul/index.html. Retrieved August 24, 2009.
- ↑ "Iridium Jazz Club". Iridium Jazz Club. http://www.iridiumjazzclub.com/. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- ↑ Milicia, Joe, "Guitar hero Les Paul ready for Rock Hall tribute," The Associated Press via Times Union, p. C8, November 10, 2008, see[dead link]AP Google website[dead link]. Retrieved November 10, 2008.
- ↑ Foster, D.R. (June 1, 2009). "Les is more: 93 years old and cooler than you—A Night with the Longstanding Guitar Great"[dead link]. The A.V. Club. Accessed August 15, 2009
- ↑ Nicoleanu, Anca (February 2, 2007). "Zici că n-ai plagiat şi, gata, ai scăpat". http://www.cotidianul.ro/zici_ca_n_ai_plagiat_si_gata_ai_scapat-22511.html. Retrieved June 19, 2009. (non-English language)
- ↑ Newels, Eric (August 17, 2009). "Music Great Les Paul Dies at 94". idiomag. http://www.idiomag.com/peek/97288/les_paul. Retrieved August 21, 2009.
- ↑ Caine, Paul (August 13, 2009). "R.I.P. Les Paul: pioneering guitarist, inventor, New York character". The A.V. Club. http://newyork.decider.com/articles/rip-les-paul-pioneering-guitarist-inventor-new-yor,31640/. Retrieved August 14, 2009. [dead link]
- ↑ Russell, Tony (August 13, 2009). "Les Paul Guitarist and inventor with huge influence on pop and jazz". The Guardian. Accessed August 24, 2009.
- ↑ Tourtellotte, Bob (August 13, 2009). "Legendary guitarist, inventor Les Paul dies, age 94". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSTRE57C3TI20090813. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- ↑ Staff writer (August 13, 2009). "Les Paul Remembered: Guitar Greats on Their True Hero". Rolling Stone. http://www.rollingstone.com/rockdaily/index.php/2009/08/13/les-paul-remembered-guitar-greats-on-their-true-hero/. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- ↑ Jack Malvern (August 13, 2009). "Musicians pay tribute to the 'original guitar hero' Les Paul". London: The Times. http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/music/article6795384.ece. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- ↑ Sheridan, Luke (August 14, 2009). "Les Paul, 94: Guitar legend". The Associated Press via Toronto Star. http://www.thestar.com/news/obituary/article/681159. Retrieved August 15, 2009.
- ↑ Itzkoff, Dave (August 18, 2009). "Funeral Plans Announced for Les Paul". The New York Times. http://artsbeat.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/08/18/funeral-plans-announced-for-les-paul/. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
- ↑ "Les Paul comes home to his mother". JSOnline. http://www.jsonline.com/news/waukesha/54027427.html. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- ↑ "Saying goodbye to Les Paul". JSOnline. August 21, 2009. http://www.jsonline.com/news/milwaukee/53940442.html. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- ↑ "University of Miami TKE". Tke-miami.com. http://www.tke-miami.com/lespaul.php. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- ↑ "TKE News Les Paul Receives Presidential Award". Tke.org. http://www.tke.org/news/2007/11/19/frater_les_paul_receives_presidential_award. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
- ↑ "Grammy Hall of Fame Award Past Recipients". grammy.com. http://www.grammy.org/recording-academy/awards/hall-of-fame#h. Retrieved August 19, 2009.
- ↑ "Technical GRAMMY Award". grammy.com. http://www.grammy.org/recording-academy/producers-and-engineers/awards. Retrieved January 29, 2012.
- ↑ Mix Foundation. Les Paul Award Winners.
- ↑ "Inventor Profile, National Inventors Hall of Fame". Invent.org. http://www.invent.org/hall_of_fame/225.html. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- ↑ List of Awardees of the AES.
- ↑ "Lifetime Honors – National Medal of Arts". Nea.gov. http://www.nea.gov/honors/medals/medalists_year.html#07. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- ↑ Les Paul: Chasing Sound.
- ↑ American Masters—Les Paul.
- ↑ Williams, Scott (April 30, 2008). "Discovery World Lands Les Paul Exhibit—Guitar Wiz Sees No Effect on Waukesha Museum" Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Accessed August 24, 2009.
- ↑ Williams, Scott (May 5, 2008). "Their Role is Instrumental—Musicians' Connections Help bring Les Paul Exhibit to Milwaukee". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. http://www.jsonline.com/news/waukesha/29512884.html. Retrieved August 24, 2009.
- ↑ Tianen, Dave (June 23, 2008). "Paul Brings Bit of Manhattan to the Pabst". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Accessed August 24, 2009.
- ↑ Farabaugh, Kane (December 27, 2007). "At 92, Music Pioneer Les Paul Still Performing". Voice of America. http://voanews.com/english/archive/2007-12/2007-12-26-voa47.cfm. Retrieved August 24, 2009.
- ↑ Landers, Rick (July 3, 2005). "Les Paul Tribute Concert at Carnegie Hall". Modern Guitars Magazine. http://www.modernguitars.com/archives/000877.html. Retrieved August 14, 2009. [dead link]
- ↑ "Broken Records Magazine, Les Paul Issue". Brokenrecordsonline.com. http://brokenrecordsonline.com/lespaul_issue_digital.pdf/. Retrieved March 27, 2011. [dead link]
- ↑ by Dave on August 24, 2009 (August 24, 2009). "Fretbase, Time Magazine Picks the 10 Best Electric Guitar Players". Fretbase.com. http://www.fretbase.com/blog/2009/08/time-magazine-picks-the-10-best-electric-guitar-players-including-yngwie/. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- ↑ Jemima Kiss (June 9, 2011). "Les Paul: Google's best doodle yet?". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/pda/2011/jun/09/google-doodle-les-paul. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- ↑ "100 Greatest Guitarists: Les Paul". Rolling Stone. November 23, 2011. http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/100-greatest-guitarists-20111123/les-paul-19691231.
- ↑ The Newark Star Ledger.
- ↑ "Les Paul and Mary Ford Marriage Profile". Marriage.about.com. http://marriage.about.com/od/entertainmen1/p/lespaulmaryford.htm. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- ↑ Steve Miller at Allmusic
- ↑ Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness World Records Limited. p. 420. ISBN 1-904994-10-5.
- Template:Official website
- History of Les Paul
- Template:IMDb name
- With Mary Ford, early stereo from 1958: Zing
- Les Paul: Chasing Sound (may require subscription) PBS Documentary on the life of Les Paul, including extended interviews with Paul.
- Remembering Les Paul Photos and extended interviews with Les on WGN Chicago's Steve & Johnnie early morning show
- Staff writer (August 13, 2009). "Les Paul", obituary at The Daily Telegraph (Accessed August 24, 2009)
- "Les Paul, 'The Wizard of Waukesha'", a biography (undated) at the Wisconsin Historical Society's official website
- Les Paul – Discovery World 2005 video (requires Adobe Flash) at Discovery World's (museum) official website
- The Les Paul Show, archive of Paul's NBC radio show at the Internet Archive's official website (includes MP3 files (free) of eleven of their radio shows including their audition show)
- "Les Paul: Legacy of a Guitar Hero" at LIFE
- The Wizard of Waukesha (1980) at Allmovie's official website
- Les Paul – 'Miles of Music', two video interviews of and performances by Paul (5–6 minutes each; requires Adobe Flash) with Bob Miles on Miles of Music (milesofmusic.tv), a Public-access television cable TV program
- CLASSIC TRACKS: Les Paul & Mary Ford 'How High The Moon'
- Photo Library from performances at Iridium
- Les Paul's final interview
- Les Paul - The Man Who Changed it All
- Les Paul at Find a Grave